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domingo, 14 de fevereiro de 2016

How dark matter, dark energy & time are confined in space-time cells that inflate and reproduces themselves continuously.

How dark matter, dark energy & time are confined in space-time cells that inflate and reproduces themselves continuously.

Author: Rui Alberto Monteiro Rodrigues.

Sir Isaac Newton, Madame Curie, Albert Einstein, Stephan Hawking, Alan H. Guth are the eternal torches of the science of the cosmos, as far as other scientists. The science has been advancing slowly along million years of our conscience of existence. Those scientists light it up. However, some doubts still remains about what is the Cosmos, and in it, for example, what really time is, and what are the "dark" matter and the "dark" energy and as they work. Hope I’ve understood their theories adequate and properly.

When trying to find a solution for the constitution of the space-time trying to not forget the Physics laws recognized up to today as true, I faced myself with one, extremely simply and elegant (so it seemed to me) that apparently could explain those points. I have, however, limited mathematical knowledge acquired in a course of civil engineering. Therefore, the main intention of this article is to be subjected to the appreciation of the international community so that it can be valued or refused in total or in part.

Fields of Higgs and particles of Higgs pops-up in the false vacuum and curves the space-time starting the big-bang, but “what” space-time was curved? Could it be the internal space of the particle, the external, or both? It doesn’t matter, although it seems to be that particle of Higgs popped up in a pre-existent space-time to have “something” curved in the limits of “whatever” and the particle. It is known that about 85% of all matter in the present universe is dark matter and energy. It is assumed in this article that about 85% of the Universe was space-time at its start up, the big-bang, and was already inside de small sphere of matter produced in Higgs’s fields, at false vacuum, or involving it. The surface of the sphere couldn’t have a frontier, but at least Higgs’s fields and/or false vacuum should have to be curved.

Any way, true or false about 85% of the Universe, corresponding to dark matter and energy, space-time already were a part of the primordial particle at big-bang startup. The question is: What mechanism made Universe to inflate continuously? The force of an explosion shouldn’t be because big-bang was not an explosion. Cells of space-time that inflates and reproduces by bi-partition, continuously, could be a different explanation rather than that already accepted. Let’s check it out to verify if it could work any how.
But, if this theory is true, some day the humanity will pay to see Theater shows in three dimensions, being transmitted in real time using space-time cells as a fantastic computer and a way for communicating faster. 
  1. Introduction
Time, dark matter and dark energy, which existence and some effects have been detected, still are the biggest unknowns of the Cosmos.
Up to now the main known effects of dark matter and energy & Time are: The dark energy is responsible for the expansion of the universe and fountain of matter to maintain it within a value of the critical density (Ω) near 1; dark matter produces a field of gravity that is added up to the gravity field of the "normal" matter in the universe. Time is a part of the space but we don’t know what and how time is really, although that time seems to work as an inverse of the space: More space, less time, and vice-versa. 
The focus of this article is the constitution of the space-time and of the time itself. With this intention, let's call "normal" matter (or mass converted in energy) to the energy and matter such as we know them, as proton, boson of Higgs, neutrino, quark, neutron, electron, etc. Space-time would be formed for what is lacking to complete the Universe: Dark energy, dark matter and the time. The space-time would be than constituted by “space-time cells” to form a cloth in four dimensions all over the Universe. This cloth also has densities, lines, volumes, times, fields.
The observable "normal" matter "floats" in the space time looking like a fish or a submarine, floating or moving, inside the ocean. In oceans, water and normal matter do not interpenetrate. In the Universe, Space-time containing dark matter, dark energy & time, and normal matter, they do.
If this theory is accepted, soon some another genius like Bhor will show up and will describe what a particle or atom of dark matter is, part of space-time cells, and how much they are in each cell, and as they contribute to the expansion of the dark energy and space-time cells. Dark matter and energy represents about 85 per cent of the visible Universe.
All what we can see in the universe is too more space than normal matter, much more space-time cells constituted of dark matter and dark energy & time, and so it would be consistent to think that dark matter and dark energy plus time make exclusively part of the space-time

  1. The space-time cells

 fig 1- space time cells

In this space-time model, space is constituted by units of four-dimensional cells mesh in the form of cubes (or triangular pyramids) constituted internally by dark energy and the time, and in each apex an "atom" of dark matter which will be called D-atom.
The time shall be an inseparable part of the dark energy that has the property to be radiant. It inflates constantly as far as time. Einstein proved that space and time are inseparable. If this theory is acceptable what would be inseparable in the space-time would be dark energy and the time, both radiant in all directions, and dark matter.

 fig 2- Space-time cells out of gravity influence

The atoms of dark matter, or D-atoms, repel [1]themselves producing expansion of the dark energy inside cell, inflating it, or vice-versa, and as each cell his intimately associated with time itself, in a inseparable form with dark energy, time also inflates creating what we call the pass, the now and the future. It means, time radiates as far as dark energy with a constant value, unless submitted to strong gravity fields. Space-time cells surfaces correspond to “now”. Passed time can stay in the interior of cells, the future time apears as far as time and dark energy radiates, like explained bellow.

Space-time cells do not expand indefinitely. When they get a certain value of expansion, they “duplicate” like cells division (bi-partition) in biology, liberating normal matter, and four more D-atoms pops up to create an extra cell. What makes cells to split probably is the information contained inside them to keep omega (Ω) near 1, as cellar equilibrium of forces. Information could be transmitted this way.

 fig 6 - space-time cells under gravity effects

Could cells bi-partition with normal matter emission be the cosmic noise discovered by Penzias and Wilson, proved by COBE projects? Could it be that noise the popup of normal matter in each space-time cell in the whole universe? If this theory is correct it could be. The emission of microwaves can be detected again and at any time because space-time cells are always producing new normal matter. Emitted normal matter can be bosons of Higgs or quarks that creates increasing gravity field as they approximate to one another and combine themselves.    

If we could abstain of normal matter (including the normal matter produced inside space-time cells)  all the cells of the space-time they would have the same time in our universe because they would not be subjected to the action of normal matter gravity fields and the Universe would be absolutely uniform if didn’t crash.

The cloth of the space-time does not offer resistances to the movement of normal matter particles unless they collide[2]. Particles in high speed through the space-time cells have not sufficient dimension or mass to press them, to divert them, to spread them out. Particles pass freely on the inside of cells or trough the lines that tie up the D-atoms of the cells. D-atoms do not alter the speed of particles not even of the quanta of light. Collisions should produce normal matter if so happens.

However, a spaceship in high velocity, for example, while being moving in the space-time, "pushes" the cells of space-time, pressing them (compacting them) and this means to press the space-time itself. When the time or space-time cells are pressed time slows down: Tend to infinity in the proportion in which the speed increases, up to the impossibility of increasing the speed limit of the light. This effect is like normal mass matter increasing when traveling at light velocity. 

Light moves in the space-time cells by the easiest way, such as rivers on Earth. that run for the ocean from high levels to lower ones: Light, It moves through the lines (and surfaces)  that tie up the D-atoms, where the "pressure" of the radiating expansion of the dark energy (and time) is cancelled, because this line is in the frontier between cells of adjacent space-time cells both inflating.

We might up to affirm – if this theory is accepted - that in these frontiers of the space time, between two adjacent cells, the time is relatively identical and the difference of times between extremities is near value zero. As far as in other space-time cells adjacent lines. Even in the horizon of black holes but inside worm holes, where light still shall run free.

The more speed that any particle could reach would be on moving exactly on this way between space-time cells. The speed limits of the light, under the glance of this theory would be attributed to the fact that it is able to be a particle or a wave: A particle when moving through space time cells, a wave when moving through D-atoms lines.

The gravity is the only form of interaction between the normal matter and or energy, with the space-time of dark matter, dark energy and time[3].

Space-time cells contain all the information necessary for the continuity of the Universe and expand it continuously, keeping all universe basic information,  Omega (Ω) near less 1 in dark zones of the Universe where the action of fields of gravity of the normal matter is lower, and a value of (Ω) near 1 for more, near high gravity zones. The general average of the Universe (Ω) near 1 is maintained because of the proportion between dark space apparently out of normal matter big quantities and space-time with normal matter volumes and densities.
 fig. 3- cut in space-time cells
Space-time cells are never destroyed and expand exponentially by “cells bi-partition" just like the cells division in biology. In his interior, past time and the present time they coexist in all his completeness. The future time is built milliseconds to millisecond by his exponentially expansion.

Even the bodies of great mass as Moon and Earth are still producing particles by bi-partition space-time cells of the space-time, increasing his mass itself and volume, increasing gravity fields and contributing  as a component of space increase between Moon and Earth, Earth from Sun and other planets. Probably it will be hard to detect because our human bodies also expands, and space-time proportions are kept. The space-time under less influence of fields of gravity produces more cells of space-time, and in consequence particles of more normal matter, increasing gravity fields. All in the Universe is inflating, more or less depending on the gravity effects in each zone.

  1. The D-atoms

Eight D-atoms composes a cell of space-time, the interior of the cell would be composed of dark energy & time. The D-atoms repel (or attract) between themselves, or are moved away by the expansion of the dark energy. Any kind of energy keep d-atoms (or d-particles) tied up, which indicates that, if D-atoms seem to repel themselves, is due to the stronger fore of dark energy expansion.  Another explanation would be that S-atoms attract themselves, produces a gravity field, but dark energy still is stronger than these effects of D-atoms forces.  

D-atoms create gravity field like common normal matter that interferes in the gravity field of common matter, suffers the effects of gravity field’s common matter, but they do not interact in any other way with the common matter, do not combine between themselves.

When a limit of expansion of the cell is reached, four [4] more D-atoms are produced by the dark energy, as well as particles of normal matter to keep (Ω) omega (critical density) of cell near the value 1. And a new cell pops up with the same properties, remembering bi-partition of cells as in biology.

As average value of omega (Ω), the critical density of the Universe, is approximately equal 1, it is supposed that in places of great concentration of normal matter, High gravity fields, Omega (Ω) value inside space-time cells is bigger than 1, and in zones of low influence less than 1, at dark zones of universe.

The normal matter that pops up by bi-partition space time cells probably is particles of Higgs or quarks. These particles approach to one another by effects of gravity they create, and in contact, Chemical combinations starts up producing more complex particles, in a process that results in clouds of gases, stars, galaxies.

If this theory is correct, let's pay attention to the dark space-time zones: We will be able to see, suddenly, clouds of matter and stars lightening where before only dark space could be seen. Unless these zones of darkness are a kind of reserve of lack of normal matter, to keep Universe omega nears the value 1.  

It is possible that D-atoms are in fact D-Particles that revolves (spins) or not, around a central nucleus, or a nucleus not even exists, dark energy being an equivalent of electroweak force that maintains the electrons of the normal matter spinning around the nucleus, i.e. instead of maintaining electrons spinning around the nucleus, force would create more space, keep them away of the center of cells.

Any way, D-atoms gravity fields’ force seems to not be strong enough to avoid dark energy& time expansion. 

This process would be eternal for the future, as well as it seems to be eternal to the past, even before the early beginning of big-bang (or still before him in an eternity to the past).

To detect these D-atoms does not seem to be an easy task, but the most appropriate place can be in dark zones of the universe, where apparently there is not detected normal matter that could reflect light and or cause a more higher gravity field than that caused by dark matter of space time cells d-atoms .

In these zones, the time (and the space) expands in the very higher speed possible determined by the theories of exponential expansion of the Universe and so, space-time cells cubic form shall be the most perfect. Cells multiply in bigger speed producing particles in the cells subdivision
In other zones of the universe where gravity influence of the common matter is higher, like in singularities, space-time cells are compressed, twisted, stretched, deformed, influencing space-time expansion, time slows down.                                                           The extreme space-time compression occurs inside singularities horizon of events. Cells do not multiply and do not produce normal matter particles.

If this theory is correct, some another genius like Bhor will discover the D-atoms or D-Particles, and perhaps there is come to the conclusion that God, if exists, didn’t played craps when “made” the Universe. The whole Universe is coherent, simple, have explanation, and it works with precision in all the whole extension without needing to keep constant orders from the divine. It has in his space-cells all information Universe needs to rule him, and multiply eternally, at least in this one where all of us use to live. Universe rules cannot be subverted or changed.   

  1. The time

Time radiates in all directions as dark energy expands in the interior of each cell of space-time. Most probably they do it together, dark energy and time. Radiation is at an average speed of the Universe expansion (Huble constant). In each space-time cell, time and dark energy expansion depends on the following force fields:

• Gravity Fields of normal matter
• Gravity Fields of dark matter (D-atoms and or particles)
• Dark energy expansion inside

Time, space and dark energy in the interior of each cell are radiant in all directions. If this theory is correct, it could be said that time expands in the Universe in an average value identical to that of the tax of Universe exponential expansion – The Huble constant.

Inside the horizon of events of singularities - as submitted to high gravitational field of normal matter - space-time cells can be highly compressed and twisted and expands slowly or do not expands. Time tends to infinity as far as dark energy expansion and space itself. It seems to be a paradox, time and energy trying to expand tending to infinite, but high gravity doesn’t let it happen. Omega (Ω) near value 1 is the rule inside space-time cells wherever they are. Gravity effects over time and space, in singularities horizon of events can be so strong that time can tend to minus infinite, when a worm hole starts to be formed, and the space-time cells are extremely deformed, but the 4-dimentional mesh never can be corrupted or torn.  

D-atoms form lines of identical time (iso-time) in the space-time, the easiest way to the running of light. It can be possible that there is not time in these lines due to the compression of the dark energy in cells of adjacent space-time cells. These lines could be like "neuter" lines of space-time, where quanta can run in its speed limit. If these extremely compressed space-time cells inside the horizon of events in singularities, still keep this property, is a doubt at moment 

So, the quantum interlacement of two particles could be explained because they move in the “same now” (lines and surfaces of iso-time, same time). To be in the same now could mean that there is no difference on time, and space at same now is a “place” where light and “information” can run at a maximum (or more) the light velocity. Probably is a new space-time property to be checked. 
Intertwined particles that moves in lines or surfaces of different iso-time lose gradually the property of the quantum interlacement (on crossing zones of high gravity fields) because there no “same now” space and that gradually changes due to gravity fields influence in a very smooth manner.

 fig 4 - Iso-time lines, surfaces and volumes
Is it possible that the entire Universe is at the same “now time”? Only inside the horizon of events at singularities, it couldn’t happen?

If it could be managed to sufficiently press a zone of the space-time and in it to introduce a clock, it will be seen that clock would measure a different time: An early time, such as confirmed as per the experience done inside of airplanes which speed was the factor that influenced the time. In this case it is the simple compression of the space-time. What results should experiences at CERN would have, if the space of the experience could be sensitively compressed?

Under the point of vue of these space-time theory, light travels in straight line due to inertia through the faces of lines of the same iso-time in space-time cells and gradually moves for different iso-time lines or surfaces, under gravity fields influence, since these fields also changes time inside cells and cells themselves.

If this theory is correct, the intensity of the rays of a star that is measured during an eclipse will lessen after the eclipse. That means that the quanta lost energy while crossing zones of great field of gravity, pressing the cells of space-time by which it passed, avoiding inclusively his "linear" movement cause of the curvature of the space-time at the sun nearby.

Supposing that this theory is correct, with the vectors time in the cells of space-time radiating in each one uniformly in a determined space-time place, under the same influence of a gravity field, not even pressing or expanding cells it would be feasible to return to the past or to travel to the future. The vectors time radiates continuously, non stop. “Traveling” to the past or to the future is only an illusion, because all we “could” do, was to watch! And even that, only the past, not the future, already to be inflated inside space-time cells.

The maximum that it might get towards de past would be to ”delay" time by means of compressing space-time cells, or traveling near light speed, but even so, it would not be “traveling” toward past, but running to the future more slowly that the part of the Universe environments, those ones we want to “see” the “past”, that still advanced more slowly to the future.

Our telescopes can see the past. If this theory is correct, the rays of light that emanated from stars and planets in the past up to us, they are in the same "time" line, or very approximately, traveling through space-time cells, most probably for union lines between D-atoms, allowing that the space-time of the past can be seen in the present, in the same "now" in which the light traveled (process similar to that of the quantum interlacement). This "time" is a relative time of the universe, a line of iso-time.

Time and radiant space-time dark energy “rays“tends to infinity in singularities horizon. This means that meanwhile time tends to infinity getting slower, space-time dark energy becomes stronger tending to infinity too, trying to keep (Ω) near 1 inside the cell of space-time, but space-time cells are stretched, twisted, compressed due to gravity field of the singularity. The resultant of these effects are stronger that inside cells time and dark energy expansion.

  1. The speed limits in the space-time

How light can travel so many parsecs since about 300,000 years after big-bang up today, without sensitively loosing energy? The explanation could be found in the interface of two space-time cells, and adjacent ones, and other adjacent ones, in all way since then, light running in a time-line equal near “zero” in a constant velocity. Nothing interferes, unless high gravity fields to deviate it. Zero time could mean “now” universal time.

 fig 5 -how space-time cells affects velocity.

A massive spaceship, for example, while crossing cells in space-time, cannot break space-time of cells corrupt them. Not even black holes or other singularities can get that because space-time is expansive and cells are made of different matter than that of singularities, composed bay normal matter and space time dark matter and space-time cells. The spaceship on traveling "pushes" space-time cells, presses them, and if this theory is correct, it presses the time as well as the expansion of the dark energy in the interior of the compressed cells. The higher is the speed, more space-time cells spaceship needs to press, to "push", reducing his speed because time runs more slowly. The more cells are pressed or pushed, the more expansive dark energy force against the advance of the spaceship, causing the impression that starship mass goes to infinite.  

The light, on the contrary, looks like the water in the surface of Earth, which runs always through the easier way. Running between faces of cubic space-time, through  lines that links cells d-atoms, light has nothing to avoid its running. It travels always in the same iso-time line, or adapting to a different line the approximately value possible in the running. Different time lines are due to normal matter gravity fields. 

To the light, there’s “no space” because travels always are in iso-time lines or in iso-time surfaces running in the nearest value of iso-time of previous one in which was moving, due to gravitational fields of normal matter influence that obliges light to choose another line or surface likely. Due to these gravitational effects, light deviates, following the curve of space-time aligned cells and after to the nearest iso-time line to the nearest one, and so on. This is the way light crosses the entire universe without loosing energy (or loosing so few)

The multiple routes of a particle, according to Feynman Theory could be explained as far as light would travel on linked d-atoms lines or in common surfaces between adjacent space-time cells.

  1. Our universe from the point of view of space-time cells bi-partition

Let us repeat: Fields of Higgs and particles of Higgs pops-up in the false vacuum and curves the space-time. “What” space-time is curved? The particle’s internal, external, or both? It doesn’t matter, although it seems to be that particles of Higgs popped up in and from a pre-existent space-time. If it was a different Universe or this one, it doesn’t matter too.

The fact is: What kind of mechanism makes it to inflate continuously? Not the force of an explosion, because big-bang was not an explosion. It spreads through inflation in a universe with no center. Every point of it inflates continuously. Cells of space-time that inflates and reproduces themselves by bi-partition, continuously, could explain universe exponential expansion as proved Omega (Ω) average shall be near value 1.

This mechanism could be the cells of space-time that multiplies eternally such as described above. Turning back to the very first instant of big-bang startup, first particles produced as per cells bi-partition could create a lot of gravity fields agglutinating other produced particles as they would be produced the same way in other universe space-time cells as per bi-partition inflationary production. All this could happened inside the plasma of high temperatures, high density that lasted a long time during the first 300.000 years and after since today. The more a space-time cell is pressed, the more space expands and time slows down. In the plasma before 300,000 years of Universe existence, and while the space-time was expanding, the space-time cells did not stop multiplying, nor producing more normal matter under the form of particles of Higgs, quarks, and so on, always maintaining omega near to 1. If so, could black holes evaporate? Or would they transfer his matter to a different “space” or local inside our universe, through worm holes?

Space time cells first produced particles could act as "atratores" from the point of view of the theory of the chaos applied to plasmas, and start attraction of other particles formed, according with the gravity laws, to produce the “uniformity” of the Universe as seen with dark zones in the space and zones of normal “now” illuminated normal matter.

Under gravity fields, agglutinated normal matter starts to produce clouds of gas, and have formed galaxies, stars, planets. Though the Universe is apparently uniform, it is possible that some zones of the space-time had produced more quickly new cells and others less, resulting in concentrations of normal mass already created and great dark spaces alternating in the Universe space-time (always to keep Omega, the critical density of universe near value 1).

In this expansion phase, when the space time already had nearly 900.000 years-light of extension, and the age of the Universe was about 300.000 years, the light could now go through the cells of space-time less compressed already, still in fully inflationary expansion. So then, after 300,000 years since the universe start up, the space-time cells had reproduced themselves and expanded enough – under less influence of the gravity - allowing the passage of the light, which at his time also had been more freely from the influence of the gravity field of the universe.

  1. Traveling through space-time to the past and to the future.

If this theory is true, travels to the pass or to the future could be allowed. It should due to the fact of the time to be a radiant vector intimately linked to dark energy in each space-time cells – it radiates in all directions. Pass and present are still inside each cell of space-time, but future is still to radiate. However, compressed space-time cells have time compressed too, what means that in other parts of de Universe, time runs faster. If we could survive to an adequate space-time compression, we could wait some time compressed in space-time to live after in the future

If this theory is correct and as time radiates along with the dark energy within each space-time cell, the surfaces of space-time cells represents the “now” of the cell. Surfaces of space time with the same “now” times have their same “now” time, as far as iso-time lines and volumes in the universe.

This does not means that we live in the walls of a cell of space-time, but we live in a "bubble" of space-time composed of time-space cells subjected to the same effect of Earth's gravity field, and then, carrying in the same equal inside us. What size may have each cell space time? All we could affirm –if this theory is correct – is that have their form depending of the matter fields of gravity, and can be compressed or extended (in the case of extension there is de apparent limit of Huble constant. In the case of compression, space-time cells could be compressed to zero and inverted inside black holes).

The “now” of time depends mainly of gravity fields in space-time cells. And it seems that me, you, all of us, we only can stay in one time “now” zone at a time. On an iso-time line is impossible for us because of dimensions. Lines are very thick, as far as surfaces which only have two dimensions plus time.

We can be at “now” time in volumes of iso-time space-time cells, and that is what exactly happens on Earth, and when traveling through the space-time, changing the “now” time to the time of the region of space we are traveling, the more approximately “now” time region possible. How to move from one volume of iso-time space-time, to another different one in the past or in the future?

  • Going to the past - The easier way to go to the past using this theory of space-time cells, it would be by depressing cells of space-time to expand more rapidly in order time to run faster, since dark energy and time would be intimately tied up. The best place to accelerate space-time cells (dark energy expansion and then time) would be in dark zones of space time where gravity fields have lesser influence on cells. But how to make space time cells to inflate more, if at that places they already inflates the more they can inflate? Due to limits of Huble Constant, it seems to be impossible. But supposing that it could be done, you will lost all work on spending time in the travel to come back. It wouldn’t work.

  • Going to the future – The best place to compress space-time cells should be near singularities where gravity fields of normal matter influence are higher in order to compress space-time cells. Your time would slow down meanwhile the rest of the universe time would run faster to the future. As soon as space-time compression was released you would be in the future, with the rest of the universe, loosing time meanwhile. Traveling in time seems to be a dream nowadays. Perhaps it the future, with other discoveries.  

Suspect that Universe seems to be an alive and intelligent “being”. What “intelligence” really is?  Surely a not so different way of thinking as it is actually understood. What kind of intelligence is inside space-time cells since they has all the knowledge to expand universe and produce the basic particles for all normal matter, light, quarks and so on? The answer could be the physical laws of equilibrium inside them. 

Any way, the brilliant Arquimedes, the Greek, said some day in the past, in an egoistic form: “Give me a ladder and I’ll move the Earth”. Could we say some day “Get a space-time-virus to be introduced in cells of space-time, and we will change the Universe rules”, at least in a confined “place” in Space-time?

And more, beyond about science and space-time cells… Could it be confirmed, in the future, that as we live in space-time full of cells with all information since the big-bang start up, all that information of the universe and of the past times can be inside our genes too? Or this kind of thoughts belongs to scientific fiction?  

® Author: Rui Alberto Monteiro Rodrigues
Civil Engineer - CREA  – Rio de Janeiro - Brasil
Ordem dos Engenheiros –  Região Sul – Portugal

[1] Perhaps dark matter (D-atoms) attracts themselves instead of repelling, but to the effect of this theory, it doesn’t matter yet.
[2] Or not even they could collide.
[3] However, still to be checked how light keeps it energy traveling billions of kilometers without loosing energy, unless this theory is correct and light travels allays between space-time cells where time is practically zero. 
[4] Or three more D-atoms increase, if space-time cells would be triangular pyramids. 

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